Research Activities
On Peace Studies
2006 International Workshop No.1
■Speaker :Prof. Johan Galtung, Director, TRANSCEND, Founder and Former Director of the International Peace Research Institute, Oslo
■Place :Rm101, Building 3, Seta Campus, Ryukoku University
■Date :23 October 2006, 15:10-16:40
■Number :060002
At the first international workshop of the Afrasian Centre, Prof. Galtung enthusiastically talked about why he chose peace studies and why a peace paradigm, which differs from the conventional security paradigm, is necessary, referring to important turning points in his life.

The most important aspect of the peace paradigm advocated by Prof. Galtung is the concept of conflict transformation. In this paradigm, a conflict is considered as a relation between multiple parties (countries). Peace is considered to be the condition in which relationships are favourable, and problems do not exist. If a relationship deteriorates for some reason, that condition is considered to be a conflict. The aim of peace studies is to identify the causes of a conflict and to pursue measures for arbitration and mediation that can resolve the conflict in a constructive and insightful manner. Here, it is extremely important to have dialog among relevant parties for the purpose of transforming conflict into peace.

In the workshop, Prof. Galtung also introduced a specific example of conflict transformation in Latin America in which he was personally involved. Ecuador and Peru had, for many years, been disputing land near their national borders. He worked out a system by which the area would be designated as a bi-national zone in which a national park would be established and managed by both countries. Today, the area is functioning as a sort of free economic zone where merchants from both countries can come and go freely to engage in trade activities.??